Steganographic Approaches for Implementing Robust Digital Watermarks Using Edge Pixels
Nashat Al-Bdour, Ayman M. Mansour, Neamah M. Aljaafreh |Pages: 265-277|

Abstract— In this paper, we present a comprehensive quantitative analysis of innovative methods for implementing digital watermarks using steganographic techniques. Our study assesses the robustness and effectiveness of these approaches through a series of experiments, yielding compelling results. Firstly, our examination of the embedding success rate revealed an impressive 95.2% success rate, indicating the high reliability of our proposed method in successfully embedding watermarks within images. Secondly, we subjected watermarked images to various common image manipulation techniques to evaluate the method’s robustness. The outcomes are striking; the obtained success rates of 98.3% for compression, 96.7% for cropping, 97.5% for resizing, 95.1% for filtering and 93.9% for noise addition, showcase the method’s capacity to maintain watermark integrity even under diverse image manipulations. Furthermore, our study unveils that the digital watermark remains highly invisible to the naked eye, achieving an invisibility rate of 99.1%. This characteristic ensures that the watermark does not detract from the visual quality of the original image. Additionally, concerning detection accuracy, our method demonstrated a remarkable rate of 97.4%, underlining its efficacy in accurately identifying and extracting digital watermarks from images. Lastly, we explored the feasibility of embedding and extracting multiple digital watermarks within a single image, achieving a success rate of 96.6%. These findings collectively highlight that the proposed approach significantly enhances the resilience of digital watermarks against various image manipulations while maintaining high invisibility and accuracy. Such results underscore the method’s suitability for safeguarding digital content in real-world scenarios.